Volcanologists working on remote islands in the Galápagos Archipelago has found that volcanoes which reliably produce small basaltic lava eruptions hide chemically diverse magmas in their underground plumbing systems - including some with the potential to generate explosive activity. These volcanoes might undergo unexpected changes to sudden such activity in the future.
Ancient climate records from Leviathan Cave, located in the southern Great Basin, show that Nevada was even hotter and drier in the past than it is today, and that one 4,000-year period in particular may represent a true, ''worst-case'' scenario picture for the Southwest and the Colorado River Basin -- and the millions of people who rely on its water supply.
A cave in a remote part of Mexico was visited by humans around 30,000 years ago - 15,000 years earlier than people were previously thought to have reached the Americas. Excavations of Chiquihuite Cave, located in a mountainous area in northern Mexico controlled by drugs cartels, uncovered nearly 2000 stone tools from a small section of the high-altitude cave. Analysis of the sediment in the cave uncovered a new story of the colonisation of the Americas.
According to paleoclimatic reconstructions analyzing stalagmites sampled in some caves in the Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy), Neanderthals might have become extinct because Homo sapiens employed more sophisticated hunting technologies.
Research shows Buchan Caves to be about 3.5 million years old and that Victoria's East Gippsland has remained tectonically active for long times, even into the present-day, which is why residents occasionally report earthquakes. Basically, the uplifting Southern Alps in New Zealand have made stress and strain on the Australian tectonic plate, stress that is then expressed as earthquakes and rising landscapes in Victoria. It's rather amazing that the caves recorded this geological signal all the way from NZ.
The Monte Conca cave system in Sicily is showing signs of being altered by pollution from above.