Journal series 13, contents and abstracts

Series 13 Number 1

Title: Tagli Lava Tube, Northeast Iceland
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 1, Spring 2012, page(s) 2-19
Abstract: This paper discusses the full exploration and surveying in July 2012 of Tagli, a 1km long basaltic lava tube located in the Ódáðahraun, Northeast Iceland. This lava tube was discovered and partially explored in July 2011 but the full extent of this lava tube was not quite appreciated until a more thorough exploration took place during a follow-up expedition in 2012. Also described is a series of trials that were undertaken during this trip was a pilot magnetometer study using the new generation of one-chip 3-axis geomagnetic sensors which are now commonly contained inside modern “Smartphones”. The aim of these trials was to try and detect the known lava tube and to log the magnetic field and GPS data to the phone memory for later analysis.


Title: The Shepton Logo, Updated
Author(s): Batten, K.
Journal Series 13, Number 1, Spring 2012, page(s) 20-21
Abstract: An updated version of the Shepton logo is presented, along with some of the reasoning behind why the changes were made. Close up images of the new and old logos are compared to highlight the difference in pixelation that are inherent in the differing formats.


Title: Caves of Fairy Cave Quarry, An Unpublished Survey
Author(s): Mills, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 1, Spring 2012, page(s) 22-24
Abstract: An unpublished survey of Fairy Cave Quarry Caves is presented, which was undertaken by members of Shepton Mallet Caving Club between 1969 and 1973. The various surveying techniques adopted are briefly described, and other sources of information that were utilised are acknowledged.


Title: Book Review: Earth Colours
Author(s): Mills, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 1, Spring 2012, page(s) 25-26
Abstract: A review of “Earth Colours”, the long anticipated and awaited fascinatingly detailed history of ochre mining in the Mendips and Bristol area.


Title: Iceland, Basalt, Lava Caves, etc. A Bibliography
Author(s): Mills, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 1, Spring 2012, page(s) 27-45
Abstract: This extended bibliography of 314 items details all the known writings by club members and a few others on lava caves worldwide and other basaltic curiosities since the decision was made in 1968 to go to Iceland and investigate lava caves. An introduction outlines how that decision came about. The items in the bibliography have also been separated into an accompanying subject and location index.


Series 13 Number 2

Title: The Island of Steep Holm
Author(s): Dummer, P.
Journal Series 13, Number 2, Autumn 2012, page(s) 47-59
Abstract: The island of Steep Holm, located in the Bristol Channel, is formed of Carboniferous Limestone and is geologically a continuation of the nearby Mendip Hills. This article describes some recent Shepton trips to the island, along with details of all the currently known caves to be found on the island.


Title: Smart Pictures: Taking Underground Photographs by Wi-Fi
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 2, Autumn 2012, page(s) 60-64
Abstract: This article summarises the findings from some tests in late 2012 using a recently introduced low light compact digital camera which includes Wi-Fi technology, enabling a modern smart phone to be used as a remote control and viewfinder.


Title: GPS in the Jungle
Author(s): Collett, P.
Journal Series 13, Number 2, Autumn 2012, page(s) 65-68
Abstract: This article briefly describes some of the problems that can be encountered when using a handheld GPS receivers in areas of poor reception, and provides some useful tips as to how to improve the accuracy of the location readings in those areas.


Title: Caves and Karst of Thailand, A Bibliography 2001-2010
Author(s): Ellis, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 2, Autumn 2012, page(s) 69-89
Abstract: This article gives details of 569 papers, books, reports, pamphlets, newspaper reports and articles, webpages and magazine articles on the caves, karst and limestones of Thailand that have been published between 2001 and 2000.


Series 13 Number 3

Title: Some Caves in Thailand, Part 4
Author(s): Ellis, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 3, Spring 2013, page(s) 91-118
Abstract: Work by the Shepton Mallet Caving Club in Thailand has continued and this fourth part of an ongoing series of articles gives details and surveys of various caves explored by the club since Some Caves in Thailand, Part 3 was published in 2011. Since the first expedition in 2000, the club has surveyed 73 km of passage in 170 caves (as of April 2014). A total of 26 new and updated cave descriptions and surveys, from eight provinces, are included along with location details.


Title: Detecting Lava Tubes with a Smartphone?
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 3, Spring 2013, page(s) 119-31
Abstract: This paper describes the methodology and subsequent field tests undertaken in July 2013 to try and detect the presence of a lava tube using the magnetometer inside an Android smart phone. Trials were undertaken at three different lava tubes in Iceland, which all produced similar and repeatable results. A comparison is then made to other research that was undertaken using professional surveying equipment, together with a direct comparison to precision 3-axes USB powered digital magnetometer. The results demonstrate a reasonably close correlation, which suggests that it may be possible (in some circumstances) to roughly detect lava tubes using a smart phone in lieu of expensive surveying equipment.


Title: Morphology and Evolution of the Lava Del Passo Dei Dammusi 1614-24 Lava Flow, Mount Etna, Sicily
Author(s): Wood, C.
Journal Series 13, Number 3, Spring 2013, page(s) 132-144
Abstract: During August 1976, a large team, made up of students from St Albans College of Further Education, members of the Shepton Mallet Caving Club and members of Club Alpino Italiano (Sez. Etna. Gruppo Grotte Catania), undertook detailed mapping of the lava tube caves and the surface morphology of a part of the 1614-24 lava flow, Mount Etna North. It was hoped that such a survey would contribute to an understanding of the role played by lava tubes in the evolution of this most unusual lava flow. The area selected for investigation comprised some 3 km2 lying astride the forest track that runs between Casermetta and Villagio Turistico Mareneve, in the eastern part of the flow known as the Lava del Passo dei Dammusi.


Series 13 Number 4

Title: Ban Mani Phruk Expeditions 2012-2014
Author(s): Ellis, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 4, Autumn 2013, page(s) 146-185
Abstract: Since the last report on the club’s expeditions to Ban Mani Phruk in Nan province, Thailand was published (SMCC Journal Series 12 No. 7) there have been two further expeditions in February 2012 and February 2014, and in March 2013 a small team visited for three days. Tham Pha Phueng has been confirmed as Thailand’s deepest cave with a vertical range of 476m and is now the tenth longest in the country (4,750m). Three other caves with a vertical range of more than 100m have been explored and one cave has been surveyed to a length of 1.9km.


Title: The ooLiTE: Thermo-Electric Lighting for Cavers
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 4, Autumn 2013, page(s) 186-203
Abstract: This article summarises the findings from a prototype DIY cave lighting device “the ooLiTE” which uses the heat energy from a tea-light to directly illuminate a LED using the Seebeck effect in a Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG). TEGs based on existing technology are generally inefficient at converting heat to electricity, and so this design transmits the waste heat energy into a liquid based heat sink, to ultimately provide the caver with a warming drink. The ooLiTE is an inexpensive, compact, lightweight portable design solution. It can be built for less than £40 as a DIY project using no more than simple hand-tools and readily available components. The design uses the latest Cree LED technology to generate up to 150 lumen of light output for an extended period, depending on the heat source and size of heat sink. The ooLiTE could perhaps provide a useful alternative lighting and heating source for an underground camp on an expedition.


Series 13 Number 5

Title: SMCC 60th Anniversary Trip to Romania
Author(s): Campbell, J, Davey, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 5, Spring 2014, page(s) 205-32
Abstract: This is a report of the SMCC Summer 2009 trip to the Apuseni Mountains in the north west of Romania, to mark the club's 60 th anniversary. This report includes practical advice on getting there, geographical situation, maps, guidebooks, further reading and some other non-caving activities. This report gives details of 12 of the most popular caving trips in the area and information on 4 show caves.


Title: Lava Tube Detection Using Wi-Go, Iceland
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 5, Spring 2014, page(s) 233-39
Abstract: This paper describes a number of pilot surveys undertaken in Iceland during June 2014 to try and detect the presence of lava tube from the surface, using a fairly sensitive 3-axes battery powered digital magnetometer streaming live data to an Android® smart phone via Wi-Fi. This article follows on from phone magnetometer trials which were undertaken in July 2013, as described in an earlier Shepton Mallet journal article. The survey results were a little ambiguous, with only weak anomalies detected, which may relate to the known lava tube. It is considered a range of unforeseen factors may have obscured the results including a significantly thicker rock overburden, potential overlying surface level lava tubes and even layering of the basalt. Further work to expand the pilot survey work is required to look at the effects of overburden thickness on magnetic anomalies.


Series 13 Number 6

Title: 2015 & 2016 Expeditions to Doi Phuka National Park, Nan, Thailand
Author(s): Ellis, M.
Journal Series 13, Number 6, page(s) 241-77
Abstract: Following the 2014 Shepton Mallet Caving Club expedition to the Doi Phuka National park in Nan there were two smaller expeditions to the area in January and February 2015. These trips concentrated on the region between the end of the "Southern Track" and the village of Ban Nam Pua Patthana and many caves were located, including the main resurgence of the Nam Pua river. In February 2016 the fifth Shepton Mallet Caving Club Expedition to Ban Mani Phruk saw 15 cavers in the field for 10 days.


Title: Basic Surveying with a Smartphone?
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 6, page(s) 278-80
Abstract: This article describes trial experimentation using a waterproof smartphone in conjunction with a waterproof laser distance measuring device to try and measure survey leg bearings, inclinations, and distances. A number of survey loops were undertaken on the surface, which were then compared to a control set of results using a Suunto Compass/Clino.


Title: Digging at Cutlers Green, Chewton Mendip
Author(s): Begley, J.
Journal Series 13, Number 6, page(s) 281-91
Abstract: This article describes progress at a dig site at Cutlers Green, Chewton Mendip. The dig site is located in an area of the Mendip Hills that hasn’t seen a lot of interest from cavers, but appears to have potential for some significant cave development. A summary of the digging activity is given, along with a geological overview of the site and a summary of the biological finds at the site. A survey of the progress to date is also provided.


Title: Jurassic Limestone Caves in Normandy
Author(s): Lillington, A.
Journal Series 13, Number 6, page(s) 292-97
Abstract: This article provides a brief overview of Les pertes karstiques de l'Aure, a 5km long active river cave formed in Jurassic (Quaternary Oolitic) limestone. The cave is located close to the town of Port-en-Bessin-Huppain, Normandy, France. The resurgences and sinks were unexpectedly encountered during an unrelated camping trip to the area in June 2016. This article intends to compile some background information about the cave system, the sinks and resurgences, for general club interest and for any potential future trip.